The existing 1 MWth CCL pilot plant will be upgraded for higher efficiency and operability in order to bring the plant configuration as close as possible to the set-up of an industrial plant, so that the CCL process can be investigated under realistic conditions. The scheme of the upgraded pilot plant is shown in the figure below. The flue gas from a coal-fired furnace is introduced into the carbonator, where CO2 is absorbed by CaO. The CaCO3 is regenerated in the calciner at increased temperature by firing coal with O2 and recycled flue gas. Long-term pilot testing fuelled with hard coal and lignite will be performed to determine the effect of a number of process parameters (i.e. solids inventory, solids circulating between reactors, reactor temperatures, fuel type and size, steam and sulphur concentration in the carbonator) on the CO2 capture rate and the process efficiency.
The pilot tests will provide experimental data for the validation of steady-state and dynamic process models as well as 3D models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which are developed for the scale-up and optimisation of the CCL process. The experience from pilot testing and the validated models will particularly be used for the conceptual design and pre-engineeringof a 20 MWth CCL pilot at the plant Emile Huchet in France, which is considered as the next step towards the industrial implementation of the CCL process. Health, safety, and technical risks will be assessed, and the costs for erection and operation of the 20 MWth CCL pilot will be determined.
Finally, the full-scale implementation of the CCL process into hard coal and lignite fired power plants as well as industrial (cement, steel) plants will be evaluated. A techno-economic analysis for each type of host plant will be performed to estimate costs of electricity and CO2 avoidance costs in order to compare the CCL process with other CO2 capture technologies. The environmental impact of CCL applications will be determined by a life cycle analysis.