The CCL process has been evaluated to be more efficient than first generation CCS technologies like amine post combustion and oxy-combustion. An efficiency penalty as low as 3 % points (without compression of CO2) and CO2 avoidance costs as low as 15-20 €/tCO2 have been determined for a retrofit of coal-fired power plants. Limestone is a non-hazardous natural resource available in large amounts, and CCL does not produce any degradation product or residues with impact on health, safety and environment (HSE). Instead, spent limestone could be utilised for cement production or flue gas desulphurisation. CCL has by now been demonstrated for very short periods and is still considered not mature enough for large scale demonstration or even commercial implementation. Hence, more experience should be obtained to be able to go on the next technology development step represented by a 20 MWth pilot plant. SCARLET will bring CCL to this next level of maturity, preparing the ground for pre-commercial demonstration of the technology. By addressing the key challenges and demonstrating the upgraded technology at the pilot scale of 1 MWth, the project will give confidence for investments into a larger-scale 20 MWth unit. With the help of validated simulation tools for scaling up the CCL process, scaling criteria can be determined to facilitate the design of a future large-scale demonstration project, aiming at short term commercialisation of the process. Besides, the SCARLET project identifies how CCL should preferably be integrated in a commercial power plant, in a steel plant, or in a cement plant to optimise performance and minimise technical risks, targeting efficiency, reliability, and operability. After successful demonstration of units of the 20 MWth size, the technology will be ready for design and installation of commercial size units on utility boilers and other sources where CO2 reduction is required.

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